The Frame of the Game

Corporate social responsibility is sometimes sadly just a fancy phrase. But when it is taken seriously and done right, it can be very powerful.

This autumn H&M ran the ‘She is a Lady’ campaign, which defies societal beauty standards for woman. We see body hair and a refreshing mix of body shapes and sizes.

There is a visible distinction between this H&M campaign and most of their previous ones. The textile retailer has changed its frame of the game.

According to Entman, to ‘frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text’ (1993). But why did H&M suddenly decide that it is important to show women of all sizes and ages rather than size zero, young, long-legged supermodels?

Thanks to feminists, activists, and popular culture engaging with the topic of the perception of women’s bodies on various platforms the anti-body-shaming movement emerged. It is called the cultural turn or the politics of signification (Hall, 1982).

Trends, movements, and pop culture are picked up by companies – especially when they are a lifestyle brand like H&M. At first, the campaign seems commendable. Upon closer inspection, the frame shakes.

H&M produces much of its products in Bangladesh, where – mostly women – work in factories under poor working conditions; for long hours and a very low wage. In 2013 the Rhana Plaza incident killed 1,129 people. In the ruins of the building clothes with various brand tags were found. Amongst them H&M-tags.

Despite the companies effort to improve its ways ever since, their production chain remain opaque. It promotes fast-fashion and consumerism, which contributes to climate change and social injustice.

Why does H&M encourage independence, empowerment, and freedom for urban, western women yet take the exact same from its female employees in developing countries?

This ‘frame shaking’ is actually based on the frame resonance. The credibility and the salience of the framed topic need to add up. In the case of H&M the equation is simply zero. It is a cross-dressing campaign to improve the image of the brand and increase profits.

A company where credibility and salience work together like fish and chips is Patagonia. The outdoor clothing brand produces under fair and organic conditions. It financially supports environmental campaigns – this year even with 100% of its Black Friday profits. In the podcast ‘The Growth Show’, Rick Ridgeway, Patagonia’s VP of environmental affairs talks about how a company’s message can only be credible if it is truthful. At Patagonia, they achieve this with full transparency – “telling the good and the bad. It’s having the moxie to openly tell our customers and other external stakeholders about the harm that we are doing.”



Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43 (4), 51-57.

Hall, S. (1982). The Rediscovery of ‘Ideology’: Return of the Repressed in Media Studies. In: Storey, J. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 56-90.

Polletta, F. (1998). Contending Stories: Narrative in Social Movements. Qualitative Sociology, 21(4), 419–446.



3 thoughts on “The Frame of the Game

  1. Great post! A lot of campaigns by most organizations have only been created to portray them positively rather than leading example from its performance in some actions. The H & M campaign for ‘She is a Lady’ is an example of such description.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Really interesting post! Fortunately, some campaigns aim to reveal these ethical clashes and show people that not everything that glitters is gold (see:
    This also reminds me of a post Frances Buckingham wrote, in which she asks if corporates can credibly campaign for social change (you can find it here: I actually don’t know how to answer this question, but I believe that, due to its unethical work and environmental policy, H&M definitely shouldn’t.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. This blog made me think about the work that Benetton has done around identity over the years (since the 80s) with its use of models that reflect the full diversity of the human race. Not a squeaky clean company, but one that has consistently and courageously challenged the obsession with white, wafer thin models and backs up its advertising campaigns with a women’s empowerment programme.


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